This document has two sections, the first is DART’s use of MPI for the core DART routines, and the second section ‘Filter “async” Mode Diagrams’ describes the options for advancing models that may or may not have their own parallel considerations.
The latest release of the DART system includes an MPI option. MPI stands for ‘Message Passing Interface’, and is both a library and run-time system that enables multiple copies of a single program to run in parallel, exchange data, and combine to solve a problem more quickly. The latest release of DART does NOT require MPI to run; the default build scripts do not need nor use MPI in any way. However, for larger models with large state vectors and large numbers of observations, the data assimilation step will run much faster in parallel, which requires MPI to be installed and used. However, if multiple ensembles of your model fit comfortably (in time and memory space) on a single processor, you need read no further about MPI.
MPI is an open-source standard; there are many implementations of it. If you have a large single-vendor system it probably comes with an MPI library by default. For a Linux cluster there are generally more variations in what might be installed; most systems use a version of MPI called MPICH. In smaller clusters or dual-processor workstations a version of MPI called either LAM-MPI or OpenMPI might be installed, or can be downloaded and installed by the end user. (Note that OpenMP is a different parallel system; OpenMPI is a recent effort with a confusingly similar name.)
An “MPI program” makes calls to an MPI library, and needs to be compiled with MPI include files and libraries. Generally the MPI installation includes a shell script called mpif90 which adds the flags and libraries appropriate for each type of fortran compiler. So compiling an MPI program usually means simply changing the fortran compiler name to the MPI script name.
These MPI scripts are built during the MPI install process and are specific to a particular compiler; if your system has multiple fortran compilers installed then either there will be multiple MPI scripts built, one for each compiler type, or there will be an environment variable or flag to the MPI script to select which compiler to invoke. See your system documentation or find an example of a successful MPI program compile command and copy it.
DART use of MPI
To run in parallel, only the DART filter program (and possibly the
companion wakeup_filter program) need be compiled with the MPI
All other DART executables should be compiled with a standard
F90 compiler and are not MPI enabled. (And note again that filter can
still be built as a single executable like previous releases of DART;
using MPI and running in parallel is simply an additional option.) To
build a parallel version of the filter program, the mkmf_filter
command needs to be called with the ‘-mpi’ option to generate a
which compiles with the MPI scripts instead of the basic Fortran compiler.
See the quickbuild.csh script in each
for the commands that need to be edited to enable the MPI utilities. You
will also need to edit the
$DART/build_templates/mkmf.template file to call the
proper version of the MPI compile script if it does not have the default
name, is not in a standard location on the system, or needs additional
options set to select between multiple Fortran compilers.
MPI programs generally need to be started with a shell script called mpirun or mpiexec, but they also interact with any batch control system that might be installed on the cluster or parallel system. Parallel systems with multiple users generally run some sort of batch system (e.g. LSF, PBS, SLURM, POE, LoadLeveler, etc). You submit a job request to this system and it schedules which nodes are assigned to which jobs. Unfortunately the details of this vary widely from system to system; consult your local web pages or knowledgeable system admin for help here. Generally the run scripts supplied with DART have generic sections to deal with LSF, PBS, no batch system at all, and sequential execution, but the details (e.g. the specific queue names, accounting charge codes) will almost certainly have to be adjusted.
The data assimilation process involves running multiple copies (ensembles) of a user model, with an assimilation computation interspersed between calls to the model. There are many possible execution combinations, including:
- Compiling the assimilation program filter with the model, resulting in a single executable. This can be either a sequential or parallel program.
- Compiling filter separately from the model, and having 2 separate executables. Either or both can be sequential or parallel.
The choice of how to combine the filter program and the model has 2
parts: building the executables and then running them. At build time,
the choice of using MPI or not must be made. At execution time, the
setting of the
async namelist value in the
controls how filter interacts with the model.
- async = 0
The model and filter programs are compiled into a single executable, and when the model needs to advance, filter calls a subroutine. See the async 0 diagram which illustrates this option.
- async = 2
The model is compiled into a sequential (single task) program. If filter is running in parallel, each filter task will execute the model independently to advance the group of ensembles. See the async 2 diagram which illustrates this option.
- async = 4
The model is compiled into an MPI program (parallel) and only filter task 0 tells the startup script when it is time to advance the model. Each ensemble is advanced one by one, with the model using all the processors to run in parallel. See the async 4 diagram which illustrates this option.
- async ignored (sometimes referred to as ‘async 5’, but not an actual namelist setting)
This is the way most large models run now. There is a separate script, outside of filter, which runs the N copies of the model to do the advance. Then filter is run, as an MPI program, and it only assimilates for a single time and then exits. The external script manages the file motion between steps, and calls both the models and filter in turn.
This release of DART has the restriction that if the model and the filter program are both compiled with MPI and are run in ‘async=4’ mode, that they both run on the same number of processors; e.g. if filter is run on 16 processors, the model must be started on 16 processors as well. Alternatively, if the user model is compiled as a single executable (async=2), filter can run in parallel on any number of processors and each model advance can be executed independently without the model having to know about MPI or parallelism.
Compiling and running an MPI application can be substantially more complicated than running a single executable. There are a suite of small test programs to help diagnose any problems encountered in trying to run the new version of DART. Look in developer_tests/mpi_utilities/tests/README for instructions and a set of tests to narrow down any difficulties.
Performance issues and timing results
Getting good performance from a parallel program is frequently difficult. Here are a few of reasons why:
- Amdahl’s law You can look up the actual formula for this “law” in the Wikipedia, but the gist is that the amount of serial code in your program limits how much faster your program runs on a parallel machine, and at some point (often much sooner than you’d expect) you stop getting any speedup when adding more processors.
- Surface area to volume ratio Many scientific problems involve breaking up a large grid or array of data and distributing the smaller chunks across the multiple processors. Each processor computes values for the data on the interior of the chunk they are given, but frequently the data along the edges of each chunk must be communicated to the processors which hold the neighboring chunks of the grid. As you increase the number of processors (and keep the problem size the same) the chunk size becomes smaller. As this happens, the ‘surface area’ around the edges decreases slower than the ‘volume’ inside that one processor can compute independently of other processors. At some point the communication overhead of exchanging edge data limits your speedup.
- Hardware architecture system balance Raw CPU speeds have increased faster than memory access times, which have increased faster than access to secondary storage (e.g. I/O to disk). Computations which need to read input data and write result files typically create I/O bottlenecks. There are machines with parallel filesystems, but many programs are written to have a single processor read in the data and broadcast it to all the other processors, and collect the data on a single node before writing. As the number of processors increases the amount of time spent waiting for I/O and communication to and from the I/O node increases. There are also capacity issues; for example the amount of memory available on the I/O node to hold the entire dataset can be insufficient.
- NUMA memory Many machines today have multiple levels of memory: on-chip private cache, on-chip shared cache, local shared memory, and remote shared memory. The approach is referred as Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) because each level of memory has different access times. While in general having faster memory improves performance, it also makes the performance very difficult to predict since it depends not just on the algorithms in the code, but is very strongly a function of working-set size and memory access patterns. Beyond shared memory there is distributed memory, meaning multiple CPUs are closely connected but cannot directly address the other memory. The communication time between nodes then depends on a hardware switch or network card, which is much slower than local access to memory. The performance results can be heavily influenced in this case by problem size and amount of communication between processes.
Parallel performance can be measured and expressed in several different ways. A few of the relevant definitions are:
- Speedup Generally defined as the wall-clock time for a single processor divided by the wall-clock time for N processors.
- Efficiency The speedup number divided by N, which for perfect scalability will remain at 1.0 as N increases.
- Strong scaling The problem size is held constant and the number of processors is increased.
- Weak scaling The problem size grows as the number of processors increases so the amount of work per processor is held constant.
We measured the strong scaling efficiency of the DART ‘filter’ program on a variety of platforms and problem sizes. The scaling looks very good up to the numbers of processors available to us to test on. It is assumed that for MPP (Massively-Parallel Processing) machines with 10,000s of processors that some algorithmic changes will be required. These are described in Anderson & Collins “Scalable Implementations of Ensemble Filter Algorithms for Data Assimilation” 2007.
User considerations for their own configurations
Many parallel machines today are a hybrid of shared and distributed memory processors; meaning that some small number (e.g. 2-32) of CPUs share some amount of physical memory and can transfer data quickly between them, while communicating data to other CPUs involves slower communication across either some kind of hardware switch or fabric, or a network communication card like high speed ethernet.
Running as many tasks per node as CPUs per shared-memory node is in general good, unless the total amount of virtual memory used by the program exceeds the physical memory. Factors to consider here include whether each task is limited by the operating system to 1/Nth of the physical memory, or whether one task is free to consume more than its share. If the node starts paging memory to disk, performance takes a huge nosedive.
Some models have large memory footprints, and it may be necessary to run in MPI mode not necessarily because the computation is faster in parallel, but because the dataset size is larger than the physical memory on a node and must be divided and spread across multiple nodes to avoid paging to disk.
Filter async mode diagrams
Options for parallelism both in DART and in the model advances:
Simplest case, async=0:
This is a single MPI executable, with each call to the model being simply a subroutine call from each MPI task.
Parallel advance, async=2:
The filter executable is one MPI program, and the model is a single, sequential executable. Each MPI task uses the unix “system()” call to invoke a shell script (advance_model.csh) which runs the models as independent programs.
Other views of how the async=2 option is structured; these may be more or less helpful.
Parallel advance, async=2:
Parallel advance, async=2, second version:
Parallel model advance, async=2,
Parallel model advance, async=4:
The filter executable is one MPI program, and the model is also an MPI program. The filter executable communicates with the runme_filter shell script, which sequentially invokes mpirun to advance each of the model runs, one per ensemble member, still using advance_model.csh.